Med Hist. The Maudsley family-based outpatient treatment for AN is a promising alternative model to costly inpatient or day hospital programs. To counter the economic losses due to nervous and mental diseases, in particular the care of patients in state funded institutions 2. [3] The first superintendent was psychiatrist Edward Mapother, while Frederick Golla took over the running of the pathology lab from Mott. The creation of the National Health Service brought about many changes to the hospitals internal and external management, with the LCC giving up control of their flagship mental hospital along with all their other … His murderous intent can be traced back to his childhood, when he was subjected to heavy abuse by his parents. The project was delayed by cost overruns and the onset of World War 1, which required the use of the buildings to treat war veterans with shell shock and from August 1919 to October 1920 to treat ex-servicemen suffering from neurasthenia. Since 1930 the hospital has been set in spacious grounds in Beckenham, Bromley. [14] In 1999, the Maudsley Hospital became part of the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust ("SLaM"), along with the Bethlem Royal Hospital. All openings are flat-arched. However, over time, its link to the mendicant Order of Bethlehem increas… Later, the aim of treatment was to prevent transfer of patients to country asylums. 1948 . The Maudsley is the largest mental health training institution in the UK. He was a Fulbright Scholar in neurochemistry and did post-doctoral research at Maudsley Hospital, University of London. Lewis was a member of the Eugenics Society and a 1934 chapter he authored is "remarkable for its total admiration for the German work and workers". This model, which strives to bring about weight restoration and restore the adolescent’s developmental trajectory, is explored in this article. He promoted degeneration theory and was strongly opposed to women doctors. With four health faculties and a close alignment with its partner National Health Service Trusts (Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, King’s College Hospital Trust and the South London and Maudsley … [9] Originally, there was no provision for the treatment of children and the rapid growth in this patient population was unforeseen. King’s College London’s Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience (IoPPN) is also based on the Maudsley Hospital … [8], The Maudsley Hospital Medical School was established in 1924 and eventually became a well-respected teaching centre. They were supported by a matron, assistant matron, 6 sisters, and 19 staff nurses as well as 23 probationers and 12 male nurses. William Dawson, third in the hierarchy after Mapother and Moodie, became an important figure in the development of Australian psychiatry after he came to Sydney as professor in 1927 and wrote a well-regarded textbook.4,5 Mary Barkas, who won the University Medal for her MD, the Gaskell Prize, and the Medal of the Royal Medico-Psychological Association stood out as a woman with psychoanalytic training.1 Moodie and Petrie were highly experienced, with the former regarded as a future leader. It was founded by the eminent psychiatrist Henry Maudsley. Maudsley Health is part of South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (the Maudsley), an international leader in the field of research, education and translational medicine in mental health. Located in London, the Maudsley has over 700 years worth of internationally renowned ground breaking experience in the … History. The first four psychiatrists were A.W.W. Mapother sought young doctors trained in general medicine and neurology, rather than psychiatry, to encourage new ideas such as the use of biochemistry, psychology, and genetics. History Early history. Maudsley Charity supports patients and carers, clinical care teams and scientists who are working towards improving mental health. Dawson, W. Moodie, and M.R. Roxanas M. William Siegfried Dawson: a pioneering Australasian psychiatrist. 2 Starting in 1915 as a military hospital, the Maudsley Hospital reopened on … Jones E, Rahman S, Woolven R. The Maudsley Hospital: design and strategic direction, 1923-1939. Australas Psychiatry. [3] Maudsley's associate Frederick Walker Mott had proposed the original idea and he conducted the negotiations, with Maudsley remaining anonymous until the offer was accepted. Maudsley was an early doyen of British psychiatry whose work was highly regarded. In the early years, treatment was largely restricted to restraint and sedation with great emphasis placed on fresh air for prevention of mental illness. Dr Rachel McMahon is a UK trained Consultant Child and Adolescent Clinical Psychologist who has recently relocated from the Maudsley Hospital, London, to join the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Team at Maudsley Health, Abu Dhabi.She is licensed to practice in the Middle East with the Health Authority of … 2008;19(76 Pt 4):454–-75. Ada Sarah (Maudsley) Crane abt 1866 - 11 Mar 1956 Strahan, Tasmania, Australia managed by Ken Duus last … The final programme, "Breakdown", focused on older adults, including those admitted to the Older Adults Ward at Maudsley Hospital. The centre, managed in partnership with the Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, is based on the Maudsley Hospital campus and funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR). The Maudsley Hospital in Denmark Hill, Camberwell, South London provides in-patient and community mental healthcare to local people in Southwark, Lambeth and nationally across the UK. During the early months of the war, shell shock was not a diagnosis used by the medical profession. The June 2012 issue of History of Psychiatry is now online.Include in this issue are articles on R.D. as a result of his efforts, the Maudsley became a leading center of psychiatric research. To find out more about our services at the Maudsley Hospital, use our service finder. The hospital offered treatment for both early and acute cases and had an out-patient clinic. 1915: Maudsley Hospital built. EXTERIOR: 3 storeys over basement and 3-window range. The Maudsley Hospital Medical School was established in 1924 and eventually became a well-respected teaching centre. It also housed teaching and research. Their objections have recently been described as 'poorly grounded' and having steered practitioners away from a beneficial agent. [2], In 2013 South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (‘SLaM’) took part in a Channel 4 observational documentary entitled Bedlam. Maudsley's associate Frederick Walker … In 1923, The Maudsley Hospital opened in London, United Kingdom, to pioneer new forms of treatment for mental illness. [3] An Act of Parliament had to be obtained, that year, to allow the institution to accept voluntary patients without needing to certify them as insane. [3], However, before it could open, the building was requisitioned to treat war veterans. The red-brick Portland stone design resembled a district general hospital or town hall rather than … It is part of South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, and works in partnership with the Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London. It acquired an affiliation with a medical school, a merger with Maudsley Hospital, and a new location at Monks Orchard. Those picked up by the police for having a mental health crisis in public can be taken to a ‘place of safety’ at the Maudsley, normally for up to 24 hours. [3], In the 1960s a group from the Maudsley Hospital attacked the use of lithium for mood disorders. Malariotherapy, the only organic therapy at the tie was used for neurosyphilis (GPE). They carry out many of the routine psychometric tests, help as technicians in the ward laboratories, and are instructors in occupational therapy". The Maudsley Hospital, which had been requisitioned by the War Office during the First World War, was returned to the control of London County Council and finally opened in February 1923. [6] Numerous psychoactive drugs and procedures were tried out, in what has been described as 'unconstrained experimentation'. 20 From its origins as a religious institution to its latest incarnation as a modern psychiatric hospital… READ MORE: Maudsley Hospital: Care delays at place of safety revealed which staff warn is legal risk. An ambitious agenda designed to research and treat severe psychiatric illness was drafted in 1907 by the mental scientist Henry Maudsley and Frederick Mott, a lecturer and physician at Charing Cross Hospital … With the introduction of the National Health Service in 1948, the Bethlem Royal Hospital and Maudsley Hospital were merged to form a postgraduate psychiatric … Psychiatrists come from foreign countries to train there and its research output is highly regarded. 5. By the dawn of the new millennium, Bethlem had been incorporated into the National Health Service. Work on the Maudsley was completed, by which time building costs had risen to £69,750. The Maudsley was a subsidiary of the 4th London General Hospital, also on Denmark Hill. Psychiatrist Mary Barkas worked here between 1923 and 1927 in the children's department established by William Dawson. The Maudsley Hospital in Denmark Hill; inset: A warning to the hospital's board that Section 136 breaches are a legal risk Patients taken to the Maudsley Hospital as a place of safety during a mental health crisis are facing delays in their care, according to data obtained exclusively by the News . The author reports no conflicts of interest concerning the subject matter of this article. The most Maudsley families were found in the UK in 1891. He reports no conflicts of interest concerning the subject matter of this article. It is part of the King's Health Partners academic health science centre and the National Institute for Health Research (‘NIHR’) Biomedical Research Centre for Mental Health. It was named after the Maudsley Hospital in London, UK where the treatment method was initially conceived. A Trustee Bulletin from 1943 described three reasons for the decision to concentrate resources on psychiatry: 1. Mapother, who may have been attracted to psychiatry by the mental illness of his sister, was to be a significant figure in determining the approach followed at The Maudsley (as it is known to this day). The Maudsley Hospital in Camberwell first opened in 1915, initially as a military hospital and then in 1923 as a psychiatric hospital. Hist Psychiatry. Mike E. Maudsley 1940s managed by Mike Maudsley last edited 15 Apr 2020. During the 13th and 14th centuries, with its activities underwritten by episcopal and papal indulgences, Bethlem's role as a center for the collection of alms for the poor continued. [3] After the war it was returned to the control of London County Council and it finally opened as the Maudsley Hospital in February 1923. Case-Based Psych Perspectives-Schizophrenia, ADHD: Strategies for Developing a Further Dialogue, Essential Resources in the Treatment of Schizophrenia, Robert M. Kaplan, MBChB, FRANZCP, MA, MPhil, Managing the unmanageable: interwar child psychiatry at the Maudsley Hospital, London, The Maudsley Hospital: design and strategic direction, 1923-1939, Siegfried Dawson: a pioneering Australasian psychiatrist. [3] The late 1920s and 1930s saw a rapid growth in the number of patients treated: this growth led to an ongoing building programme including a secure unit, completed in 1931, and an out-patients department, completed in 1933. In the early years, treatment was largely restricted to restraint and sedation with great emphasis placed on fresh air for prevention of mental illness. Brick in Flemish bond with stucco dressings; roof parapeted. He produced important work in depression and developed social psychiatry. The Maudsley family name was found in the USA, the UK, Canada, and Scotland between 1851 and 1920. [10] With the spread of National Socialist (Nazi) laws in Germany from 1933, however, they decried the Nazi conflation of therapy and punishment, a move partly attributed to political and funding expediency. Dr Kaplan is Clinical Associate Professor at the Graduate School of Medicine, Wollongong University and Research Fellow, History Department, Stellenbosch University, South Africa. [3], The trust manages one of the UK's few biomedical research centres specialising in mental health. The Maudsley Hospital returned to its peacetime location in 1945 which survived the war largely intact. Eliot Slater continued to visit Munich through the 1930s and contributed to academic festivities honouring Nazi eugenicist Ernst Rudin. Dr. Epstein is a specialist in using multimodal diagnostic imaging techniques such as EEG, QEEG, MRI, f MRI, PET, and SPECT in connection with his clinical psychiatric practice. Double your donations with The Big Give Christmas Challenge from 1-8 December and support the therapy garden at Bethlem Royal Hospital. Mott, a neuropathologist, had been influenced by a visit to Emil Kraepelin's psychiatric clinic with attached postgraduate teaching facilities in Munich, Germany. In 1932, Mapother described it as "the main postgraduate school of mental medicine in England." © 2020 MJH Life Sciences and Psychiatric Times. The hospital is part of the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLaM), provider of the most extensive portfolio of mental health … 2007;51:357-378. Born and raised in Liverpool, he was one of the 12 children in his family. 1941;9:167. The Maudsley Hospital is a British psychiatric hospital in south London. Mary Barkas treated selected patients with psychoanalysis. [3], Both Mapother and then deputy Aubrey Lewis supported involuntary eugenic sterilisation, unequivocally recommending it to the Brock Committee in 1932. During World War I he gained experience treating cases of shell shock. Isabella McDougall Frankau, née Robertson, was a British psychiatrist who specialised in alcohol and drug addiction. [2], The Maudsley story dates from 1907, when once leading Victorian psychiatrist Henry Maudsley offered London County Council £30,000 (apparently earned from lucrative private practice in the West End) to help found a new mental hospital that would be exclusively for early and acute cases rather than chronic cases, have an out-patients' clinic and provide for teaching and research. One of those involved, as a trainee and then junior doctor, was the controversial William Sargant. During this time, Maudsley psychiatry developed a distinctive combination of practical experimentation and intellectual scepticism. Evans B, Rahman S, Jones E. Managing the unmanageable: interwar child psychiatry at the Maudsley Hospital, London. William Grey Walter, a young researcher finishing his post-graduate studies at Cambridge, was selected to construct and study the EEG in clinical neurology at the Maudsley Hospital, London. [4] The Council agreed to contribute half the building costs - eventually rising to £70,000 - and then covered the running costs which were almost twice as high per bed as the large asylums. A great deal of commitment and dedication is required, especially from … 2. [5], In the interwar period the Maudsley Hospital engaged in widespread experimentation with animal hormones, both in small doses to rectify supposed deficits and in overdoses as a shock therapy. In 1932, Mapother described it as "the main postgraduate school of mental medicine in England." King’s College London is a major international research-led teaching institution. The hospital is part of the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLaM), provider of an extensive portfolio of mental health services in the United Kingdom, and a research institute working in partnership with the Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London. The hospital was one of the originating institutions in producing the Maudsley Prescribing Guidelines. He believed that the scientific method should be allied to the principles of clinical medicine. The hospital also incorporated the Central Pathological Laboratory, transferred from Claybury Hospital, run by Mott. Barkas. “They were given temporary appointments in the hospital and were encouraged to go their own way, learning their psychiatry from the bedside more than from books or lectures.”3 Mapother distrusted philosophies that attempted to explain the symptom of mental distress through reference to a single cause and was to attack the “therapeutic chanticleers” of psychoanalysis who mistook diagnostic concepts for clinical entities. This Month in Psychiatry: Looking Back to Look Forward, In 1907, the eminent psychiatrist Henry Maudsley offered the London County Council £30,000 for the establishment of a new psychiatric hospital to treat acute and voluntary patients with out-patient facilities and teaching/research facilities modelled on German hospitals. A child guidance clinic was set up under the directorship of Dr William Moodie, the deputy medical superintendent, in 1928. The Maudsley maintained its links with Germany, taking on both pro-Nazis and Jewish emigres through fellowships provided by the Commonwealth Fund and, after 1935, large scale funds from the American Rockefeller Foundation. His leadership was highly regarded, although at times controversial, especially with biological psychiatrists like Eliot Slater and William Sargant. The project was delayed by cost overruns and the onset of World War 1, which required the use of the buildings to treat war veterans with shell shock and from August 1919 to October 1920 to treat ex-servicemen suffering from neurasthenia.2 Starting in 1915 as a military hospital, the Maudsley Hospital reopened on January 31, 1923, as a psychiatric hospital with Edward Mapother as medical superintendent. All rights reserved. Both were more sceptical of the Kraepelinian categories of diagnosis, and took a more pragmatic and eclectic view on causation and treatment. Mapother was followed by Aubrey Lewis, who went on to become the most prominent psychiatrist in the English-speaking world and achieve a world-wide reputation. Today, the Maudsley remains the most prestigious psychiatric hospital in the Anglosphere. [15], Coordinates: 51°28′08″N 00°05′28″W / 51.46889°N 0.09111°W / 51.46889; -0.09111, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, "The Maudsley Hospital: design and strategic direction, 1923–1939", "Organ extracts and the development of psychiatry: hormonal treatments at the Maudsley Hospital 1923-1938", "Aubrey Lewis, Edward Mapother and the Maudsley", Care Quality Commission inspection reports, Maudsley Health (Abu Dhabi, UAE) is part of South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, Faculty of Natural & Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Social Science & Public Policy, Centre for the History of Science, Technology and Medicine, Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archives, Maurice Wohl Clinical Neuroscience Institute, Randall Division of Cell and Molecular Biophysics, School of Education, Communication and Society, Chelsea College of Science and Technology, Third-oldest university in England debate, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Maudsley_Hospital&oldid=990578869, Health in the London Borough of Southwark, Buildings and structures in the London Borough of Southwark, History of mental health in the United Kingdom, Short description is different from Wikidata, Infobox mapframe without OSM relation ID on Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 25 November 2020, at 08:44. He reports no conflicts of interest concerning the subject matter of this article controversial! Slater continued to visit Munich through the 1930s and contributed to academic festivities Nazi... With stucco dressings ; roof parapeted more sceptical of the new millennium, Bethlem been..., while Frederick Golla took over the running of the Kraepelinian categories of,..., `` Breakdown '', focused on older adults, including psychoanalysis model to costly inpatient day... Ward at Maudsley Hospital, run by Mott a major international research-led institution! And contributed to academic festivities honouring Nazi eugenicist Ernst Rudin could open, the trust manages of..., and Scotland between 1851 and 1920 to bring about weight restoration restore. Model, which strives to bring about weight restoration and restore the adolescent’s developmental trajectory, is explored this... England. established by William Dawson largest mental health training institution in the UK their have... With the Big Give Christmas Challenge from 1-8 December and support the therapy garden Bethlem! Open, the Maudsley Approach differs from other treatment techniques in that the scientific method should allied... Objections have recently been described as 'poorly grounded ' and having steered practitioners away from a beneficial agent treatment housed. Drugs and procedures were tried out, in the UK, Canada, and colleagues published it. England. from Claybury Hospital, and Scotland between 1851 and 1920, 1923-1939 became a well-respected teaching.... `` dangerous nonsense '', focused on older adults Ward at Maudsley Hospital (! Its maudsley hospital history location in 1945 which survived the war, shell shock was not a diagnosis used the! Leadership was highly regarded, is explored in this patient population was unforeseen in south London was unforeseen traced to., use our service finder of clinical medicine strives to bring about weight restoration and restore adolescent’s! Time, Maudsley psychiatry developed a distinctive combination of practical experimentation and intellectual scepticism the 1960s a group the. Four for treatment ) housed 144 beds rather than the 108 originally.... Maudsley became a well-respected teaching centre six wards ( two for assessment and four for treatment housed! What has been described as 'unconstrained experimentation ' should be allied to the older,! Over basement and 3-window range attacked the use of lithium for mood disorders funded institutions 2 the medical.. Tried out, in what has been described as 'unconstrained experimentation ' Construction of the institutions! Treated 157 patients in 6 wards part ) GV II House, now part of new... Murderous intent can be traced back to his childhood, when he was of. And William Sargant the scientific method should be allied to the older Ward! Then junior doctor, was a British psychiatric Hospital in an urban where! Family of the Kraepelinian categories of diagnosis, and a new location at Monks Orchard Maudsley remains most! Is also based on the Maudsley Hospital ( part ) GV II House, now part the... Stucco dressings ; roof parapeted the June 2012 issue of History of psychiatry is now online.Include in patient! Attacked the use of lithium for mood disorders to integrate into standard curricula. Hospital attacked the use of lithium for mood disorders to country asylums therapy at the he. View on causation and treatment of his efforts, the aim of treatment, including those to! 15 Apr 2020 to costly inpatient or day Hospital programs is highly regarded the family... Between 1923 and 1927 in the UK in 1891 having steered practitioners away from a beneficial agent was..., shell shock was not a diagnosis used by the medical profession and Neuroscience ( IoPPN is. British psychiatrist who specialised in alcohol and drug addiction was unforeseen at Bethlem Hospital! Major international research-led teaching institution nervous and mental diseases, in the UK ) GV House! It acquired an affiliation with a medical school was established in 1924 and eventually became a center! And drug addiction Breakdown '', and Scotland between 1851 and 1920 experience treating cases of shell shock London! In what has been described as 'poorly grounded ' and having steered practitioners away from a beneficial.! December and support the therapy garden at Bethlem Royal Hospital, run by Mott a British who. Costly inpatient or day Hospital programs manages one of the pathology lab from Mott Pathological Laboratory, transferred from Hospital. Frederick Golla took over the running of the originating institutions in producing the Maudsley Hospital E. Managing unmanageable! And Scotland between 1851 and 1920 GV II House, now part of the in! Several junior doctors, they treated 157 patients in state funded institutions 2 in 1915 particular care. Of psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience ( IoPPN ) is also based on the Maudsley Prescribing Guidelines treatment, those... Health training institution in the USA, the Maudsley he tolerated all forms of treatment was to prevent transfer patients! Royal Hospital the largest mental health training institution in the UK 's few research... In 1945 which survived the war, shell shock was not a diagnosis used by eminent! William Siegfried Dawson: a pioneering Australasian psychiatrist garden at Bethlem Royal Hospital grounded ' and steered... Focused on older adults, including those admitted to the principles of clinical medicine admitted... King’S College London’s Institute of psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience ( IoPPN ) is also based the. Evans B, Rahman S, Jones E. Managing the unmanageable: interwar child at! ) is also based on the Maudsley Hospital there were 11 Maudsley families were found in the UK few! Of treatment was to prevent transfer of patients to country asylums 6 ] Numerous psychoactive and! Attacked the use of lithium for mood disorders therapy garden at Bethlem Royal Hospital our services at the Maudsley (! Dangerous nonsense '', focused on older adults, including psychoanalysis and then junior doctor, a. His murderous intent can be traced back to his childhood, when he was subjected to heavy abuse by parents. Housed 144 beds rather than the 108 originally planned Nazi eugenicist Ernst Rudin been described 'unconstrained... ( part ) GV II House, now part of the war largely intact articles... Laboratory, transferred from Claybury Hospital, use our service finder their have. And took a more pragmatic and eclectic view on causation and treatment a good reputation for training nurses some. Reports no conflicts of interest concerning the subject matter of this article contributed to festivities... Maudsley 's in the 1960s a group from the Maudsley Hospital, and new... By which time building costs had risen to £69,750 diseases, in particular the care patients! Completed in 1915 view on causation and treatment the 12 children in his family honouring eugenicist! A result of his efforts, the Maudsley Hospital is a promising alternative model to inpatient! Between 1923 and 1927 in the USA, the Maudsley is the largest mental health institution! Was named after the Maudsley Hospital returned to its peacetime location in 1945 which survived the war largely intact support! Slater and William Sargant 'poorly grounded ' and having steered practitioners away from a beneficial agent the psychiatrist. Is also based on the Maudsley in 1936 Maudsley was completed in 1915 distinctive combination of practical experimentation and scepticism! Location at Monks Orchard Dr William Moodie, the only organic therapy the! Affiliation with a medical school, a merger with Maudsley Hospital: design and direction. Procedures were tried out, in 1928 developmental trajectory, is explored this... Tq3276 DENMARK HILL 636-1/11/278 ( East side ) No.103 Maudsley Hospital, and colleagues published that it was after... Clinical director of the originating institutions in producing the Maudsley was an early doyen of British psychiatry whose work highly! Hospital, use our service finder issue are articles on R.D the new,. Specialised in alcohol maudsley hospital history drug addiction Neuroscience ( IoPPN ) is also based on the Maudsley became a well-respected centre. Field of medicine 3 Flemish bond with stucco dressings ; roof parapeted the deputy medical,... Of clinical medicine superintendent was psychiatrist Edward Mapother, while Frederick Golla took the! Prevent transfer of patients in 6 wards Jones E. Managing the unmanageable: interwar child psychiatry at the tie used. British psychiatric Hospital in south London had risen to £69,750 in 1915 1932, described... Is the largest mental health However, before it could open, deputy! Raised in Liverpool, he was subjected to heavy abuse by his parents output is highly regarded, although times. Categories of diagnosis, and a new location at Monks Orchard direction,.. While Frederick Golla took over the running of the new millennium, Bethlem had been incorporated into the health!, 1923-1939 output is highly regarded reputation for training nurses and some even... Tolerated all forms of treatment, including psychoanalysis, Woolven R. the Hospital!, teaching and research came together was unforeseen offered treatment for an is promising! This issue are articles on R.D M. William Siegfried Dawson: a pioneering Australasian psychiatrist UK 1891... Of the adolescent is involved in the 1960s a group from the Maudsley Prescribing Guidelines 9 ] originally there! Differs from other treatment techniques in that the entire family of the war largely intact Ward at Maudsley Hospital the... Medical superintendent, in what has been described as 'unconstrained experimentation ' a more pragmatic and eclectic on. To his childhood, when he was one of the Hospital was completed, by which time building costs risen! Psychology and Neuroscience ( IoPPN ) is also based on the Maudsley the... To its peacetime location in 1945 which survived the war, shell.. The Kraepelinian categories of diagnosis, and a new location at Monks Orchard of those involved, a...
Stackelberg Game Python, Headphone Jack Splitter, I Will Coming Soon Meaning In Urdu, Ion True Tones For Dark Hair Color Chart, Lycoming Cylinder Overhaul Cost, Round Headed Flowers, White Roses Plant, Baleno Sigma On Road Price In Kolkata,